This is a static version of the conservation advice for this site, generated on 20/09/2019.
Please check the latest advice for this site at https://designatedsites.naturalengland.org.uk/

Lundy SAC

Last updated: 20th March 2017

Supplementary advice

The Supplementary Advice on Conservation Objectives (SACOs) present attributes which are ecological characteristics or requirements of the designated species and habitats within a site. The listed attributes are considered to be those which best describe the site’s ecological integrity and which if safeguarded will enable achievement of the Conservation Objectives. These attributes have a target which is either quantified or qualified depending on the available evidence.

The target identifies as far as possible the desired state to be achieved for the attribute. In many cases, the attribute targets show if the current objective is to either ‘maintain’ or ‘restore’ the attribute. The targets given for each attribute do not represent thresholds to assess the significance of any given impact in Habitats Regulation Assessments. You will need to assess this on a case-by-case basis using the most current information available.

Where there is no evidence to determine a marine feature’s condition, a vulnerability assessment, which includes sensitivity and exposure information for features and activities in a site, has been used as a proxy for condition. Evidence used in preparing the SACO has been cited with hyperlinks included where possible. Where references have not been provided, Natural England has applied ecological knowledge and expert judgement.

Some, but not all, of these attributes can also be used for regular monitoring of the condition of the designated features. The attributes selected for monitoring the features, and the standards used to assess their condition, are listed in separate monitoring documents, which will be available from Natural England. As condition assessment information becomes available, the conservation advice package will be reviewed accordingly.

When to use

You should use this information, along with the conservation objectives and case-specific advice issued by Natural England when developing, proposing or assessing an activity, plan or project that may affect the site.

Any proposals or operations which may affect the site or its features should be designed so they do not adversely affect any of the attributes in the SACO or achievement of the conservation objectives.

Feature target

‘Maintain’ targets do not preclude the need for management, now or in the future, to avoid a significant risk of damage or deterioration to the feature. The supporting and/or explanatory notes in the SACOs set out why the target was chosen and any relevant site based supporting information. This is based on the best available information, including that gathered during monitoring of the feature’s current condition.
Feature/Subfeature nameAttributeTargetSeasonSupporting notes
Circalittoral rockDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of circalittoral rock communities.N/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

The circalittoral rock supports many notable faunal communities and the distribution and spatial pattern of these communities vary considerably throughout the site. The circalittoral rock communities around Lundy fall into two main categories: tide-swept wave-exposed circalittoral rock communities and vertical and overhanging communities.

The representative communities of tide-swept wave-exposed circalittoral rock in Lundy are mixed faunal turf and very tide-swept faunal communities with occurrences of five notable biotopes:

  • A4.1312 ‘Mixed turf of bryozoans and erect sponges with Dysidea fragilis and Actinothoe sphyrodeta on tide-swept wave-exposed circalittoral rock
  • A4.1313 ‘Mixed turf of bryozoans and erect sponges wit Sagartia elegans on tide-swept circalittoral rock’
  • A4.1311Eunicella verrucosa and Pentapora foliacea on wave exposed circalittoral rock'
  • A4.1121 ‘Tubularia indivisa and cushion sponges on tide-swept turbid circalittoral bedrock’
  • A4.1122 ‘Alcyonium digitatum with dense Tubularia indivisa and anemones on strongly tide-swept circalittoral rock' (Mercer et al., 2004),(Irving, 2005), (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving and Northen, 2004).

The vertical and overhanging communits were surveyed in 2014/15 and found the expected communities, but noted a sharp decline in Leptopsammia pruvoti numbers (Plymouth Marine Laboratory Applications Ltd., 2016). These communities include the following biotope

A3.712 and A3.716 are infralittoral biotopes, but are included here as they are an important component of Lundy's vertical and overhanging communites that are generally considered circalittoral in nature.

Surveys in 2014/15 found Eunicella abundance to be reduced at some locations around Lundy since 2004 and 2010, but the condition of individuals was reported as improved (Plymouth Marine Laboratory Applications Ltd., 2016). The same surveys recorded a 57% decrease in Leptopsammia pruvoti abundance at Knoll Pins since 2010. However, the number of associated parasites on the Leptopsammia was reduced comapred with previous years and the proportion of juveniles to adults had increase compared with 2010 data so there is some evidence of limited potential recovery (Plymouth Marine Laboratory Applications Ltd., 2016).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of infralittoral rock communitiesN/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

The infralittoral rock supports a range of kelp and red algae communities and the distribution and spatial pattern of these communities varies throughout the site according to wave exposure, substratum and depth. The biotopes recorded across the site are often typical of high energy environments, but communities more typical of moderate and lower energy can also be found. In the shallow wave exposed areas off the w coast Laminaria digitata is the dominant kelp, but Alaria esculenta is present and biotopes such as A3.111 ‘Alaria esculenta on exposed sublittoral fringe bedrock’ can be expected (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005), (Hiscock, 1998). Elsewhere, the long-lived kelp Laminaria hyperborea forms a dense forest on stable rock. A3.113 ‘Laminaria hyperborea forest with a faunal cushion (sponges and polyclinids) and foliose red seaweeds on very exposed infralittoral rock’ or A3.214 ‘Moderately exposed infralittoral rock with Laminaria hyperborea forest’ would be typical biotopes in such situations (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005), (Hiscock, 1998).

In areas with less stable substrata, shorter lived kelp communities Saccharina latissima and Saccorhiza polyschides such as A3.121 ‘Saccorhiza polyschides and other opportunistic kelps on disturbed sublittoral fringe rock’ or A3.224 ‘Saccharina latissima with foliose red seaweeds and ascidians on sheltered tide-swept infralittoral rock’ can be expected (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005). A3.126 ‘Halidrys siliquosa and mixed kelps on tide-swept infralittoral rock with coarse sediment’ also occurs in some areas (Mercer et al., 2004). A biotope of note is A3.1153 ‘Mix Laminaria hyperborea and Laminaria ochroleuca forest on exposed infralittoral rock’. This is of interest as the occurrence of Laminaria ochroleuca (a more southerly species) appears to be increasing (Irving, 2011),(Plymouth Marine Laboratory Applications Ltd., 2016).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of intertidal rock communitiesN/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

The intertidal reef extends around Lundy, giving rise to a wide variety of different shore types from sheltered shores with dense fucoid algal cover, to steep, wave exposed rock dominated by barnacles and limpets (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005). A1.213 'Fucus vesiculosus and barnacle mosaics on moderately exposed mid eulittoral rock' is one of many biotopes typically recorded (Natural England (NE), 2012). Underboulder communities are found in some sheltered areas, dominated by A1.2142 ‘Fucus serratus and underboulder fauna on exposed to moderately exposed lower eulittoral boulders’ (Natural England (NE), 2012). Intertidal caves and surge gullies are present where the biotope A1.447 ‘Sponges, bryozoans and ascidians on deeply overhanging lower shore bedrock or caves’ can dominate. Rockpools are particularly noteworthy in the slate bedrock of the southeast coast and support biotopes such as A1.411 ‘Coralline crust-dominated shallow eulittoral rockpools’ and A1.412 ‘Fucoids and kelp in deep eulittoral rockpools’ (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of reef communities.N/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

The reef is dominated by the following main communities and community complexes (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Mercer et al., 2004), (Irving, 2005):

  • intertidal rock and rockpool communities (intertidal rock)
  • kelp and red algae communities (infralittoral rock)
  • vertical and overhanging rock communities (circalittoral rock)
  • tide-swept wave-exposed circalittoral rock communities (circalittoral rock)

Refer to the subfeature attributes for detail on the spatial distribution of reef communities.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of sea cave communities.N/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

The caves on Lundy are difficult to access and therefore not much is known about their associated communities (The Landmark Trust, 2014). However they are occasionally investigated (Mills, 1968), (Baillie and Clark, 1974), (Hiscock, 1984), and although most are species poor there are a few exceptions. Sea caves support notable faunal communities and the distribution and spatial pattern of these communities vary considerably throughout the site. Caves that were investigated in 1982 had distinctly different communities to the open shore. The communities of algae and animals present in each cave is most likely determined by exposure to wave action, abrasion from boulders and the height of the floor in relation to low water level (Irving and Northen, 2004),(Irving, 2005), (Hiscock, 1982).

The two caves southwest of the Knoll Pins are rich in species, particularly sublittoral algae not usually found on the shore such as Nitophyllum punctatum, Cryptopleura ramosa, Callophyllis lacineata and Dictyota dichotoma (Hiscock, 1982). Small caves at Rat Island are also known for their unusual fauna, including large numbers of anemones (Hiscock, 1982). However many other cave communities appear impoverished, and although they display important aspects of littoral ecology relating to abrasion and shade, are not of high scientific interest for the species present (Hiscock, 1982).

The dominant biotope across intertidal caves are A1.44 ‘Communities of littoral caves and overhangs’ where the communities present are dominated by ‘Lithothamnia’ (pink/purple encrusting coralline algae), the frequent presence of dense Audouinella sp. (a red alga) and Plumularia elegans (a hydroid) on outer surfaces of caves, ceilings and walls. The biotope A1.447 ‘Sponges, bryozoans and ascidians on deeply overhanging lower shore bedrock or caves’ is also present in the site, dominated by anemones, particularly Metridium senile, Sagartia elegans and Actinia equina (Irving, 2005).

Sublittoral caves are dominated by A4.71 ‘Communities of circalittoral caves and overhangs’ and A3.71 ‘Robust faunal cushions and crusts in surge gullies and caves’ where a high abundance of spirorbinid polychaetes can be found. The biotope A4.711 ’Sponges, cup corals and anthozoans on shaded or overhanging circalittoral rock’ is also present, where several species of encrusting bryozoans and a variety of sponge species as well as sublittoral algae can be seen (Irving, 2005), (English Nature, 1994).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of subtidal coarse sediment communities.N/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Subtidal coarse sediment is primarily found to the east and north of the site with smaller areas located to the west supporting many notable infaunal communities. The distribution and spatial pattern of these communities varies considerably throughout the site (Nunny and Smith, 2008). The dominant communities across much of the east coast of Lundy are similar to A5.142 'Mediomastus fragilis, Lumbrineris spp. and venerid bivalves in circalittoral coarse sand or gravel'. To the north of Lundy, in an area of high tidal flow, a community similar to A5.141 'Pomatoceros triqueter with barnacles and bryozoan crusts on unstable circalittoral cobbles and pebbles'. A5.611 ‘Sabellaria spinulosa on stable circalittoral mixed sediment’ was also found around the northeast banks (Nunny and Smith, 2008), (O’Dell, 2014), (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). In the far east, in a shallower area on East Bank, A5.135 ‘Glycera lapidum in impoverished infralittoral mobile gravel and sand’ can also be found (O’Dell, 2014), (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). Although A5.611 has been recorded, its presence is patchy. It is considered to be a component of the coarse sediment communities rather than forming a biogenic reef within the site.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of subtidal sandbank communitiesN/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Subtidal sand is primarily found in the far northeast of the site and off the northern west coast. These areas are typically characterised by the dominant biotope A5.231 'Infralittoral mobile clean sand with sparse fauna' (Nunny and Smith, 2008). In other areas such as those in the lee of the east coast, sediments with varying quantities of sand and mud have been recorded. These are often characterised by communities that have been described as an intermediate between A5.261 'Abra alba and Nucula nitidosa in circalittoral muddy sand or slightly mixed sediment' and A5.355 'Lagis koreni and Phaxas pellucidus in circalittoral sandy mud' (Nunny and Smith, 2008), (O’Dell, 2014), (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012).

Subtidal sand habitats are very important supporting habitas for grey seals and seabirds because they sustain the prey population; sand eels.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeDistribution: presence and spatial distribution of biological communitiesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of subtidal sandbank communities.N/AA variety of communities make up the habitat. Listed component communities reflect the habitat's overall character and conservation interest. Communities are described as biotopes using EUNIS or the Marine Habitat Classification. Communities include, but are not limited to, those that are notable or representative of the feature. Representative communities include, for example, those covering large areas and notable communities include those that are rare, scarce or particularly sensitive to pressure. Changes to the spatial distribution of communities across the feature could highlight changes to the overall feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Lundy SAC contains a wide range of subtidal sediment communities in a relatively small area. Clean mobile sands with sparse fauna are found to the northeast of Lundy and off part of the west coast beyond the reef. In contrast, the more sheltered east coast contains more diverse coarse sediment and muddier sand communities (Nunny and Smith, 2008),(O’Dell, 2014),(Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). This feature can be largely split into two subfeatures: subtidal coarse sediment & subtidal sand. More detail can be found at subfeature level.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent and spatial distribution of all caves and individual dimensions of each cave across the site.N/AThe extent (including dimensions) describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). The total extent describes the area, and other dimensions, of all the caves across the site. The dimensions of each cave describe the three-dimensional volume of the caves. (Davies et al., 2001)
Site-specifics:

Lundy has a large number of intertidal caves of varying shapes and sizes, and a few known sublittoral caves. They are found all around the island (Irving, 2005). The total number of caves is not known however up to 48 intertidal caves have been recorded according to Hiscock (Irving, 2005),(The Landmark Trust, 2014), (Hiscock, 1982). Studies carried out by Mills (1968) (Mills, 1968), Baillie and Clack (1974) (Baillie and Clark, 1974) and Lundy Working Party(1984) (Hiscock, 1984) have mapped different areas of the island's caves in more detail. Many of the caves extend for tens of metres into the island but they do not extend more than about 1m below chart datum. A small recess is present at the foot of the Gannets’ Rock Pinnacle at about 28m depth below chart datum (Irving, 2005), with four sunset cup coral Leptopsammia pruvoti close to the entrance (Irving and Northen, 2004).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent and spatial distribution of intertidal rock, subject to natural variation in sediment veneer.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature. The extent of rocky reef is unlikely to change over time, unless as a result of human activity. However, the reef boundaries may become indistinct if bedrock is covered by a thin layer of sediment (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). (Davies et al., 2001), (Ware and Kenny, 2011)
Site-specifics:

The intertidal reef extends all around the island, giving rise to a wide variety of different shore types from sheltered shores to steep, wave exposed rock (Natural England (NE), 2012). Some sheltered areas are also dominated by boulder fields. Intertidal caves and surge gullies are also present around the island. Rockpools mostly occur in the slate bedrock of the southeast coast (Natural England (NE), 2012). While there is a good understanding of where the intertidal reef is on Lundy, its extent has yet to be accurately measured.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent and spatial distribution of reef, subject to natural variation in sediment veneer.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature. The extent of rocky reef is unlikely to change over time, unless as a result of human activity. However, the reef boundaries may become indistinct if bedrock is covered by a thin layer of sediment veneer (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). (Davies et al., 2001), (Ware and Kenny, 2011)
Site-specifics:

The reefs in the Lundy SAC are varied in nature, located all the way around the island and extending well over 1km offshore to the south and west, and up to 200m metres off the east coast. It drops steeply down to 40m deep in some areas (Natural England (NE), 2012),(The Landmark Trust, 2014). The extent of subtidal reef (circalittoral and infralittor is 1030ha. The extent of intertidal reef has yet to be accurately measured. See the extent and distribution of individual subfeatures for more detail.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent at 1286ha and spatial distribution of subtidal coarse sediment.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A reduction in extent would alter the biological and physical functioning of the feature (Elliott et al., 1998). It's difficult to put an extent objective on a mobile, changing feature. An understanding of the supporting processes will be more helpful in determining site integrity. However, the extent can also be defined where the proportion of sediment-sensitive invertebrates (PSI) indicates a change to the sediment character. (Klein, 2006)
Site-specifics:

The subtidal coarse sediment is primarily found to the east and north of the site. Smaller areas are located to the west (Nunny and Smith, 2008),(O’Dell, 2014), (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent at 1768 ha and spatial distribution of subtidal sandbanks to ensure no loss of integrity, whilst allowing for natural change and succession.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A reduction in extent would alter the biological and physical functioning of the feature (Elliott et al., 1998). It's difficult to put an extent objective on a mobile, changing feature. An understanding of the supporting processes will be more helpful in determining site integrity. However, the extent can also be defined where the proportion of sediment-sensitive invertebrates (PSI) indicates a change to the sediment character. (Klein, 2006)
Site-specifics:

The sandbanks in the Lundy SAC are varied in nature. Sediment habitats dominate the more sheltered east coast and also to the northeast where the edge of Stanley Bank (a large sand bank) falls within the site boundary. To the west, sediment can be found beyond the reef. This includes the edge of North West Bank, the majority of which is outside the site (Nunny and Smith, 2008),(O’Dell, 2014),(Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent at 482 ha and spatial distribution of subtidal sand.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A reduction in extent would alter the biological and physical functioning of the feature (Elliott et al., 1998). It's difficult to put an extent objective on a mobile, changing feature. An understanding of the supporting processes will be more helpful in determining site integrity. However, the extent can also be defined where the proportion of sediment-sensitive invertebrates (PSI) indicates a change to the sediment character. (Klein, 2006)
Site-specifics:

The subtidal sand is primarily found to the north east and far west of the Lundy SAC, where the edges of 2 larger sandbanks are present (Nunny and Smith, 2008), (O’Dell, 2014),(Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012) These are Stanley Bank in the north east and North West Bank to the west.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent of circalittoral reef at 561 ha, and spatial distribution as defined on the map, subject to natural variation in sediment veneer.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature. The extent of rocky reef is unlikely to change over time, unless as a result of human activity. However, the reef boundaries may become indistinct if bedrock is covered by a thin layer of sediment (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). (Davies et al., 2001), (Ware and Kenny, 2011)
Site-specifics:

Circalittoral rock is found around much of the coast of Lundy, generally below a depth of 14m (Irving, 2005), (Irving, 2011). Knoll Pins, Anchor Pinnacle and Gannet's Rock pinnacle are well known examples of vertical rock with circalittoral communities (Irving, 2005), (Irving, 2011),(Hiscock, 1998). Subtidal bedrock and stable boulder communities can reach depths from 24m to 40m at Lundy (Natural England (NE), 2012), (Irving, 2005), (Mercer et al., 2004), (The Landmark Trust, 2014), (Irving, 2011).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockExtent and distributionMaintain the total extent of infralittoral reef at 469ha, and spatial distribution as defined on the map, subject to natural variation in sediment veneer.N/AThe extent describes the presence and area of the habitat. It’s the total area of the habitat across the site as a whole, even where it’s patchy. The distribution describes the more detailed location(s) and pattern of habitat across the site. The distribution will influence the component communities present, and also help increase the health and resilience of the feature. The extent of rocky reef is unlikely to change over time, unless as a result of human activity. However, the reef boundaries may become indistinct if bedrock is covered by a thin layer of sediment (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). (Davies et al., 2001), (Ware and Kenny, 2011)
Site-specifics:

The upper infralittoral typically extends from 0 to 8 m depth below chart datum (BCD) and the lower infralittoral typically extends from 8 to 14 m depth BCD (Irving, 2005), (Irving, 2011). Kelp forests are found in the upper infralittoral zone all around the island as a continuous band (Irving, 2005), (Irving, 2011).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Population: population sizeMaintain the population size within the site.N/APopulation size is the number of individuals within a population that are able to contribute to the species viability at a local, national and bio-geographic scale. Population size relates to the abundance of a species, and those seals within sites are important to, and contribute to the viability of the wider population (JNCC, 2015). Abundance may vary spatially and temporally.
Site-specifics:

The grey seals at Lundy have been shown to be part of the wider West England and Welsh Management Unit, which will form the basis of assessments of both ‘Favourable Conservation Status’ of the species for the Habitats Directive, and ‘Good Environmental Status’ for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs (Defra), 2014).

Whilst abundance in the site may vary spatially and temporally, the average number of seals counted per survey between 2006 and 2013 is 81 individuals (MacDonald, 2013). The highest number of seals ever recorded in one survey at Lundy was 239 (Aug 2011) (MacDonald, 2013). Counts of the grey seal population are regularly completed by the warden, but it is important to remember that the degree of accuracy is based on survey effort, accessibility, sea conditions and time of year. On Lundy it is very difficult to get an accurate count due to the number of sea caves and restricted accessibility of seal sites around the island (MacDonald, 2013). Also, it is not always possible to cover the whole island in every survey.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Population: recruitment and reproductive capabilityMaintain the reproductive and recruitment capability of the species.N/ARecruitment and reproductive capability reflect the health and success of the population in terms of maintaining and / or restoring numbers. A reduction in the availability of individuals able to successfully reproduce, and survival rates, may impact the overall size and age-structure of the population. The balance of males to females within the grey seal population will determine the breeding success and ability of the population to maintain / restore numbers. Pup production is an important indicator of breeding female abundance and breeding success that can be used to assess population trends.
Site-specifics:

Counts of seal pups are regularly completed by the warden, but it is important to remember that the degree of accuracy is based on survey effort, accessibility, sea conditions and time of year. On Lundy it is very difficult to get an accurate count due to the number of sea caves and accessibility of sites around the island (MacDonald, 2013), (Westcott, 2009),(Fox, 2012). Over the years for which we have pup data (2006, 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012 and 2013) the average number of pups recorded over those years was 19 pups per year (MacDonald, 2013). The peak pup count was in 2012 when 38 individual pups were recorded around the island over the course of the year (MacDonald, 2013).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Presence and spatial distribution of the speciesMaintain the presence and spatial distribution of the species and their ability to undertake key life cycle stages and behaviours.N/AThe presence describes the mobile species occurrence, with the spatial distribution providing a more detailed overview of the location(s) and pattern of occurrence within a site. It's important to consider the key life stages and behaviours of a species as this may influence its distribution and ultimately population abundance. Disturbance caused by human activities should not adversely affect the species. Changes in distribution of adult seals can lead to density-dependent effects, eg more seals utilising a smaller area (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2005).
Site-specifics:

Adult grey seals are distributed around the island (MacDonald, 2013) whilst pupping sites are primarily found in sea caves and on the beaches (Fox, 2012),(MacDonald, 2013),(Westcott, 2009).

Lundy is known to support a high number of the breeding grey seals in Devon and Cornwall, which return to Lundy every year to give birth to and rear seal pups with the main pupping season being between late August to mid-October.

Photo identification in the region has highlighted that animals move between other haul out areas in Cornwall and Devon (Hockley and Sayer, 2015), and national tagging work also demonstrates interchange with seals tagged in Welsh SACs where seals are a designated feature (Special Committee on Seals (SCOS), 2014). As such, Lundy plays a role in supporting the seal populations both locally in Cornwall and Devon, and within the whole West England and Welsh grey seal Management Unit (IAMMWG, 2015). It is likely that sea caves at Lundy are used for haul out resting, digesting and moulting throughout the year, not just during the pupping season (Hockley and Sayer, 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Structure and function: biological connectivityMaintain connectivity of the habitat within sites and the wider environment to ensure recruitment, and / or to allow movement of migratory species.N/AConnectivity is the extent to which populations in different parts of a species’ range are linked by the movement of juveniles or adults (Palumbi, 2003). The availability of suitable habitats for seals throughout the year to allow natural behaviours is important. Areas used for breeding / by pups may differ to those used for general rest during foraging. Habitats that are made inaccessible will reduce the ability of the site to support seals. Seals utilise a variety of habitats, including sediments and rock, to forage for a variety of prey. They may use different areas at different times of the year to target seasonally variable prey. Maintaining connectivity within and outside the site, allows access to different areas for feeding, and potentially helps to reduce competition. Seals haul out during periods of breeding and moulting and also during the non-breeding season for rest. Seals may have a number of preferred haulout areas on rock or intertidal sediments. Maintaining connectivity may help avoid competition for space between nursing mothers (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2005).
Site-specifics:

Connectivity should be considered both within the SAC, but also at the management unit level, where both national telemetry work (Special Committee on Seals (SCOS), 2014), and local photo identification (Hockley and Sayer, 2015) demonstrate considerable movements between Isles of Scilly, other parts of Devon and Cornwall, Wales and Ireland.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


ReefsStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Intertidal rockStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Infralittoral rockStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Circalittoral rockStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Subtidal coarse sedimentStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Subtidal sandStructure and function: presence and abundance of key structural and influential species [Maintain OR Recover OR Restore] the abundance of listed species, to enable each of them to be a viable component of the habitat.N/A

Natural England has included an attribute for the abundance of key structural and influential species for habitat features.

Structural species are those that form part of the habitat structure or help to define a key biotope.

Influential species are those that are likely to have a key role affecting the structure and function of the habitat (such as bioturbators (mixers of sediment), grazers, surface borers, predators or other species with a significant functional role linked to the habitat).

These will be identified at a national level in accordance with the criteria defined in the key structural and influential species paper (Covey et al., 2016). *For each species listed the reason for its inclusion as structural or influential and the information supporting its presence within the community of this site will be provided.


Site-specifics:


Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesStructure: morphologyMaintain the characteristic morphology of the habitat.N/ACaves occurring in different rock types (eg limestone, chalk, breccia) and formed through different processes (eg wave-eroded or dissolution) have very different morphologies and provide very different conditions for communities. (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004)
Site-specifics:

The majority of caves are formed at the location of basalt dykes in the granite which erode and collapse due to wave action resulting in tall narrow caves. Some caves are formed by erosion of slate (Irving, 2005),(English Nature, 1994).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Structure: Non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockStructure: non-native species and pathogensRestrict the introduction and spread of non-native species and pathogens, and their impacts.N/ANon-native species may become invasive and displace native organisms by preying on them or out-competing them for resources such as food, space or both. In some cases this has led to the loss of indigenous species from certain areas (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004). A pathogen causes disease or illness to its host. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi (Biology-Online, 2008).
Site-specifics:

Non-native species have been recorded within the Lundy SAC. Species include: hook weed Bonnemaisonia hamifera, harpoon weed Asparagopsis armata, Antithamnionella spirographidis, Zanardinia prototypus, wireweed Sargassum muticum and oyster thief Colpomenia peregrina (Lush et al., 2015).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockStructure: physical structure of rocky substrateMaintain the surface and structural complexity, and the stability of the reef structure.N/AThe physical structure of the rocky reef will influence the marine life that's likely to be present within a site. Structural and surface complexity, the spaces between rocks, fissures and crevices are all examples of aspects that should be considered (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Most of the island is formed of granite with softer, more friable slate in the southeast corner, off the south coast and offshore of the north coast. Basalt dykes within the granite erode at a faster rate, often forming caves and increasing the complexity within the site (Hiscock, 1998).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockStructure: physical structure of rocky substrateMaintain the surface and structural complexity, and the stability of the reef structure.N/AThe physical structure of the rocky reef will influence the marine life that's likely to be present within a site. Structural and surface complexity, the spaces between rocks, fissures and crevices are all examples of aspects that should be considered (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Most of the island is formed of granite with softer, more friable slate in the southeast corner, off the south coast and offshore of the north coast. Basalt dykes within the granite erode at a faster rate, often forming caves and increasing the complexity within the site (Hiscock, 1998).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockStructure: physical structure of rocky substrateMaintain the surface and structural complexity, and the stability of the reef structure.N/AThe physical structure of the rocky reef will influence the marine life that's likely to be present within a site. Structural and surface complexity, the spaces between rocks, fissures and crevices are all examples of aspects that should be considered (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Most of the island is formed of granite with softer, more friable slate in the southeast corner, off the south coast and offshore of the north coast. Basalt dykes within the granite erode at a faster rate, often forming caves and increasing the complexity within the site (Hiscock, 1998).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsStructure: physical structure of rocky substrateMaintain the surface and structural complexity, and the stability of the reef structure.N/AThe physical structure of the reef will influence the marine life that's likely to be present within a site. Structural and surface complexity, the spaces between rocks, fissures and crevices are all examples of aspects that should be considered (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Most of the island is formed of granite with softer, more friable slate in the southeast corner, off the south coast and offshore of the north coast. Basalt dykes within the granite erode at a faster rate, often forming caves and increasing the complexity within the site (Hiscock, 1998).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesStructure: physical structure of rocky substrateMaintain the surface and structural complexity, and the stability of the rocky structure within the cave.N/AThe physical structure of the rock will influence the marine life that's likely to be present within a site. Structural and surface complexity, the spaces between rocks, fissures and crevices are all examples of aspects that should be considered (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Most of the island is formed of granite with softer, more friable slate in the southeast corner, off the south coast and offshore of the north coast. Basalt dykes within the granite erode at a faster rate, often forming caves and increasing the complexity within the site (Hiscock, 1998).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeStructure: sediment composition and distributionMaintain the distribution of sediment composition types across the feature (and each of its subfeatures) presence / absence of areas mapped in GIS, compared to an established baseline, to ensure continued structural habitat integrity.N/ASediment character is important in determining the biological communities present. The distribution of sediment types across a sandbank changes naturally. This natural fluctuation should not be inhibited (Gray and Elliott, 2009). (Klein, 2006), (Elliott et al., 1998), (Cooper et al., 2011), (Burningham and French, 2009)
Site-specifics:

Mapping the distribution of sediment types can be achieved using particle size parameters (e.g. Folk Classification, Sorting Index, Mean grain size, Skewness, Kurtosis), and quantifying change in sediment type distribution over time. Analysis of sediment composition around Lundy has been carried out in 2007 (Nunny and Smith, 2008) and 2012 (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). This shows a range of sediment types from very poorly sorted sands and gravels to the east of the island to well sorted sands to the north on the fringes of Stanley Bank. Gravel can be both shell or of lithologic origin (Nunny and Smith, 2008). Mud fractions are reportedly restricted to the east of the site where they can reach around 28% of the sediment composition (Nunny and Smith, 2008).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentStructure: sediment composition and distributionMaintain the distribution of sediment composition types across the feature (and each of its subfeatures) presence / absence of areas mapped in GIS, compared to an established baseline, to ensure continued structural habitat integrity.N/ASediment character is important in determining the biological communities present (Gray and Elliott, 2009). Varied sediment type and grain size ensure structural complexity and connectivity.
Site-specifics:

Mapping the distribution of sediment types can be achieved using particle size parameters (e.g. Folk Classification, Sorting Index, Mean grain size, Skewness, Kurtosis), and quantifying change in sediment type distribution over time. Analysis of sediment composition around Lundy has been carried out in 2007 (Nunny and Smith, 2008) and 2012 (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). This shows a range of sediment types from very poorly sorted sands and gravels to the east of the island to well sorted sands to the north on the fringes of Stanley Bank. Gravel can be both shell or of lithologic origin (Nunny and Smith, 2008). Mud fractions are reportedly restricted to the east of the site where they can reach around 28% of the sediment composition (Nunny and Smith, 2008).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandStructure: sediment composition and distributionMaintain the distribution of sediment composition types across the feature (and each of its subfeatures) presence / absence of areas mapped in GIS, compared to an established baseline, to ensure continued structural habitat integrity.N/ASediment character is important in determining the biological communities present (Gray and Elliott, 2009). Varied sediment type and grain size ensure structural complexity and connectivity.
Site-specifics:

Mapping the distribution of sediment types can be achieved using particle size parameters (e.g. Folk Classification, Sorting Index, Mean grain size, Skewness, Kurtosis), and quantifying change in sediment type distribution over time. Analysis of sediment composition around Lundy has been carried out in 2007 (Nunny and Smith, 2008) and 2012 (Environment Agency and Natural England, 2012). This shows a range of sediment types from very poorly sorted sands and gravels to the east of the island to well sorted sands to the north on the fringes of Stanley Bank. Gravel can be both shell or of lithologic origin (Nunny and Smith, 2008). Mud fractions are reportedly restricted to the east of the site where they can reach around 28% of the sediment composition (Nunny and Smith, 2008).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communitiesN/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communitiesN/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communitiesN/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communities.N/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).

The sediment community composition will change when the habitat is subjected to pollutants and other forms of disturbance (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004), but will also be subject to significant natural variation annually. Benthic invertebrate communities are a good indicator of the health of the feature, if assessed over time.


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communities.N/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).

The sediment community composition will change when the habitat is subjected to pollutants and other forms of disturbance (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004), but will also be subject to significant natural variation annually. Benthic invertebrate communities are a good indicator of the health of the feature, if assessed over time.


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communities.N/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communities.N/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).

The sediment community composition will change when the habitat is subjected to pollutants and other forms of disturbance (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004), but will also be subject to significant natural variation annually. Benthic invertebrate communities are a good indicator of the health of the feature, if assessed over time.


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesStructure: species composition of component communitiesMaintain the species composition of component communities.N/A

Species composition of communities includes a consideration of both the overall range of species present within the community, as well as their relative abundance. Species considered need not be restricted to sessile benthic species but could include mobile species associated with the benthos. Species composition could be altered by human activities without changing the overall community type. Within each component community, species composition and population structure should be taken into consideration to avoid diminishing biodiversity and affecting ecosystem functioning within the habitat (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).


Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Supporting habitat: extent and distributionMaintain the extent and spatial distribution of the following supporting habitats: haul out sites.N/AThe extent of supporting habitats captures the presence and area of the habitats that the species relies on. The distribution of supporting habitat will partially govern the distribution of the species, and maintaining or recovering the distribution of supporting habitats will help ensure the stability of this species. Supporting habitats may not be limited to those described in the target. Seals feed in the water column over a variety of habitats, including sediments and rock. They may use different foraging areas at different times of the year to target seasonal prey. Seals may have a number of preferred haulout areas for pupping, nursing or resting, which helps reduce competition for space. (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2005)
Site-specifics:

On Lundy important seal areas are mapped and a list of important sites can be referenced. A specific area value cannot be provided; many of the key sites are distributed around the island, primarily in sea caves and on the beaches (Fox, 2012),(MacDonald, 2013), (Westcott, 2009). Lundy’s seals are distributed around the island in three main seal site(Westcott, 2009), (MacDonald, 2013). On the west coast one of the locations is from Jenny's Cove northwards to St James' Stone. This includes two sea cave sites, Aztec Seal Hole and Jenny’s Seal Hole, which are also important nursery sites and are used all year round;

1. On the north coast Puffin Gully Cave and Virgin Springs Seal Hole, may be one of the most important nursery sites on Lundy.

2. On the south coast from Seal’s Hole up towards Quarry Beach on the east coast.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Supporting habitat: food availabilityMaintain the cover / abundance of preferred food items required by the species.N/AThe availability of an abundant food supply is critically important for successful breeding, adult fitness and survival and the overall sustainability of the population. Inappropriate management and direct or indirect impacts which may affect the distribution, abundance and availability of food items may adversely affect the population. Removal of target and non-target prey species has the potential to impact seal populations and their distribution and damage habitats essential to prey species. Preferred prey species need to be considered, as feeding on sub-optimal prey species may impact fitness and abundance (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2005).
Site-specifics:

There have been limited studies on the diets of seals but SCOS (2014) summarises findings from grey seal diet research in Scotland and the East Coast of England based on the hard fish remains (fish otoliths and cephalopod beaks) (Special Committee on Seals (SCOS), 2014). Consumption was mainly sandeels and large gadoids, but the proportions have varied over the years and there is likely to be regional variation in diets. On Lundy the grey seals are known to eat sand eel and Pollack, and the Warden and local divers have reported seeing males eating rays.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006). The energy a cave receives has a fundamental impact on the amount of scour that occurs. Scour within a cave dramatically impacts the communities, particularly around the base of the cave. Therefore, changes to exposure will alter the communities present (Ratchliffe, 1976).
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006). Energy levels are a major controlling factor in sandbank habitats. Thus determining baselines, developing tolerance levels and quantifiable objectives are very important. However, there is some uncertainty over how this objective could be developed and is an area of continuing research. It's likely that energy levels and exposure will be indicated by the biotope and community compositions of the site. The energy levels required to support the feature will vary depending on the type of sandbank. (Klein, 2006), (Elliott et al., 1998), (Cooper et al., 2011), (Burningham and French, 2009), (Kenyon and Cooper, 2005), (Gray and Elliott, 2009)
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal sandSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006). Ambient energy levels related to wave and tidal action influence the amount of physical disturbance experienced by seabed sediments. Physically stable or immobile sediments often support different animal and plant communities when compared with mobile or disturbed sediments (Gray and Elliott, 2009). Therefore, understanding the site's baseline conditions is very importance. However, due to the complexity of measuring the energy and disturbance levels of an area, it's unlikely that a quantifiable objective could be determined.
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Subtidal coarse sedimentSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006). Ambient energy levels related to wave and tidal action influence the amount of physical disturbance experienced by seabed sediments. Physically stable or immobile sediments often support different animal and plant communities when compared with mobile or disturbed sediments (Gray and Elliott, 2009). Therefore, understanding the site's baseline conditions is very importance. However, due to the complexity of measuring the energy and disturbance levels of an area, it's unlikely that a quantifiable objective could be determined.
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Intertidal rockSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockSupporting processes: energy / exposureMaintain the natural physical energy resulting from waves, tides and other water flows, so that the exposure does not cause alteration to the biotopes and stability, across the habitat.N/AThe amount of energy received across the site significantly affects the communities present. Physical energy can be received through wave energy and / or tidal flow, and can be altered through human activity. Any such alterations to energy should be avoided (Hiscock et al., 2006).
Site-specifics:

Lundy’s unique situation in the mouth of the Bristol Channel means it is exposed to a wide range of physical and environmental conditions (Natural England (NE), 2013) as a result of different degrees of wave action and tidal streams on sheltered and exposed coasts and headlands (Natural England (NE), 2012). The west coast is exposed to the prevailing wind and large waves generated in the Atlantic (Irving, 2011), (Natural England (NE), 2012). The east coast is exposed to smaller more locally generated waves and faces away from the prevailing wind. It is at the northern and southern headland of the island where tidal streams develop (Natural England (NE), 2012).


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesSupporting processes: light levelsMaintain the natural light availability to the caves.N/ACave communities are special due to the lack of light within the cave. Scour and light determine communities within the cave. If light levels are significantly elevated then those communities that thrive without light (aphotic) will disappear.
Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Submerged or partially submerged sea cavesSupporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence habitats include salinity, pH and temperature. They can act alone or in combination to affect habitats and their communities in different ways, depending on species-specific tolerances. In coastal habitats they can vary widely and can influence the abundance, distribution and composition of communities at relatively local scales. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activities, may impact habitats and the communities they support (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Automatic temperature loggers have been in place since 1997 and are maintained by the Lundy warden. This dataset is currently too short to allow for the detection of any long term trends in water temperature around the island.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)Supporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence the species include salinity, pH and temperature. These abiotic factors can affect the species in different ways depending on species-specific tolerances. Temperature and salinity are closely linked and can act either alone or in combination and can ultimately determine the success of a population, most notably in coastal habitats. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activity, may also impact the supporting habitats and the food favoured by the species.
Site-specifics:

Automatic temperature loggers have been in place since 1997 and are maintained by the Lundy warden. This dataset is currently too short to allow for the detection of any long term trends in water temperature around the island.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Sandbanks which are slightly covered by sea water all the timeSupporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence habitats include salinity, pH and temperature. They can act alone or in combination to affect habitats and their communities in different ways, depending on species-specific tolerances. In coastal habitats they can vary widely and can influence the abundance, distribution and composition of communities at relatively local scales. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activities, may impact habitats and the communities they support (Elliott et al., 1998), (Gray and Elliott, 2009), (Little, 2000).
Site-specifics:


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

ReefsSupporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence habitats include salinity, pH and temperature. They can act alone or in combination to affect habitats and their communities in different ways, depending on species-specific tolerances. In coastal habitats they can vary widely and can influence the abundance, distribution and composition of communities at relatively local scales. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activities, may impact habitats and the communities they support (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Automatic temperature loggers have been in place since 1997 and are maintained by the Lundy warden. This dataset is currently too short to allow for the detection of any long term trends in water temperature around the island.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Infralittoral rockSupporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence habitats include salinity, pH and temperature. They can act alone or in combination to affect habitats and their communities in different ways, depending on species-specific tolerances. In coastal habitats they can vary widely and can influence the abundance, distribution and composition of communities at relatively local scales. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activities, may impact habitats and the communities they support (Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), 2004).
Site-specifics:

Automatic temperature loggers have been in place since 1997 and are maintained by the Lundy warden. This dataset is currently too short to allow for the detection of any long term trends in water temperature around the island.


The target has been set using expert judgement based on knowledge of the sensitivity of the feature to activities that are occurring / have occurred on the site.

Circalittoral rockSupporting processes: physico-chemical propertiesMaintain the natural physico-chemical properties of the water.N/AThe physico-chemical properties that influence habitats include salinity, pH and temperature. They can act alone or in combination to affect habitats and their communities in different ways, depending on species-specific tolerances. In coastal habitats they can vary widely and can influence the abundance, distribution and composition of communities at relatively local scales. Changes in any of these properties, as a result of human activities,