Natural England Conservation Advice for Marine Protected Areas
Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA

This advice is draft. Once this advice is published as formal advice it becomes Natural England’s statutory advice and replaces the previous advice packages. In the interim, the draft advice should be used as a basis for informing management and case work as it reflects the most up-to-date evidence held by Natural England.

On 16 January 2020, the Minister approved proposals to extend the Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA with breeding common tern Sterna hirundo and avocet Recurvirostra avosetta, and non-breeding ruff Calidris pugnax being added as features. This draft advice will be updated to reflect the new classification in September 2020.

Natural England guidance

This site collection contains Natural England’s conservation advice for this site. It fulfils Natural England’s responsibility under the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (as amended), to give advice on how to further the conservation objectives for the site, identify the activities that are capable of affecting the qualifying features and the processes which they are dependent upon.

Natural England's conservation advice for this site is made up of a number of components. You will need to consider: Additional information for consideration:

Site information

Overarching site: Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast European Marine Site
Site name: Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA
Designation type: SPA
Site identification: UK9006061
Latest classification date: 15 August 1995
Qualifying features
(click to see site specific description):

General information on the site features:
You can find generic information on the qualifying species from the following websites: The generic information on the supporting habitats for the qualifying features is useful for understanding the qualifying features, and should be used in conjunction with the site specific information.
Designated area (ha): 1247.31
Component Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI):
Overlapping Protected Areas:

Last updated: 15th March 2019

Background information and geography

The Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA is located in north-east England. Although there has been a loss of land through reclamation for industrial development during the 19th century and early 20th century, significant areas of intertidal sand and mudflat, saltmarsh and freshwater grazing marsh, saline lagoons, sand dunes and shingle , rocky shore and shallow coastal waters remain supporting a number of nationally and internationally important bird species.

The Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA was first classified in 1995 for its numbers of European importance of breeding little tern, passage sandwich tern, wintering red knot and passage common redshank as well as an assemblage of over 20,000 waterbirds. The SPA was updated in 2000 to include additional areas of coastal and wetland habitats important for waterbirds.

Seal Sands is the only extensive area of intertidal mudflats on the east coast of England between Lindisfarne to the north and the Humber Estuary to the south. The flats support high densities of invertebrates important as prey for overwintering waterbirds, particularly shelduck, red knot and common redshank. Adjacent areas of grazing marsh are used for feeding and roosting when the mudflats are inundated at high tide. Smaller areas of intertidal mudflats important for waterbirds occur on both sides of the mouth of the estuary and at Greatham Creek adjacent to Cowpen Marsh. These areas of saltmarsh provide significant feeding and roosting habitat for many species of waterbird.

The sandy beaches of Seaton Sands, North Gare Sands, Bran Sands and Coatham Sands are important feeding and roosting areas for waders, notably red knot and sanderling. Seaton Snook, a large sandy spit on the north side of the estuary mouth, is a particularly important roost for large numbers of gulls, terns and waders as it remains uncovered at high tide. The rocky shores provide a hard substrate for a different range of prey species including dense beds of mussels.

An extension to Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast SPA is currently proposed to include at sea foraging areas for breeding little tern, and breeding and foraging areas for common tern (Natural England (NE), 2018). Avocet, ruff and common tern are to be added to the SPA as new qualifying features with Eurasian spoonbill to be added to the waterbird assemblage. Please note that this Conservation Advice package is for the existing site, not for the newly proposed pSPA and its features. For the most up-to-date information on the progress of the proposals, please refer to the consultation website.

Site maps

Use the MAGIC website to see site maps, including habitats, species and other marine designations.

These maps are based on best available evidence, there are some caveats associated with the maps on MAGIC.

Conservation objectives

The site’s conservation objectives apply to the site and the individual species and/or assemblage of species for which the site has been classified (the "Qualifying features" listed above).

The objectives are to ensure that, subject to natural change, the integrity of the site is maintained or restored as appropriate, and that the site contributes to achieving the aims of the Wild Birds Directive, by maintaining or restoring:
  • the extent and distribution of the habitats of the qualifying features
  • the structure and function of the habitats of the qualifying features
  • the supporting processes on which the habitats of the qualifying features rely
  • the populations of each of the qualifying features
  • the distribution of qualifying features within the site

Qualifying features

Refer to the site information table above for the list of features within this site.

This should be read in conjunction with the accompanying supplementary advice section, which provides more detailed information to help achieve the objectives set out above, including which attributes should be maintained and which restored.

The conservation objectives apply under the Habitats Regulations, and must be considered during a Habitats Regulation Assessment, including an Appropriate Assessment.

The conservation objectives and accompanying supplementary advice provide a framework to inform the management and measures needed to conserve or restore the European site, and the prevention of deterioration and significant disturbance of its qualifying features.

Where the objectives are met, the site will be considered to show a high level of integrity, and to be contributing to achieving the aims of the Habitats Regulations.

Supplementary Advice on Conservation Objectives

See supplementary advice on conservation objectives for this site, which aim to describe the range of ecological attributes that are most likely to contribute to a site’s overall integrity.

Last updated: 13th September 2019

Advice on Operations

See the advice on operations for this site to view information on the sensitivity of features in this site to the pressures exerted by different activities.

Last updated: 13th March 2020

Advice on Seasonality

See the advice on seasonality for this site, to view the months in which each mobile feature occurs in this site.

Last updated: 15th March 2019

Feature Condition

In 2016, Natural England trialled and rolled out a new Marine Protected Area (MPA) condition assessment methodology that provides robust results and information on the condition of marine features designated within MPAs in England. With guidance from National teams and using all available evidence and condition monitoring data, Area Teams conduct these assessments following a standardised approach that assesses if the feature and sub feature conservation targets set for each MPA have been met.

To date, condition assessments have been completed for a number of features in a range of marine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) by the National and Area Teams. Further marine habitat features in SACs and other MPAs will continue to be assessed in the future. The new method can now also be applied to complete habitat and species condition assessments for other MPAs in England, whilst still meeting the different processes in place to report on the results of condition of features in Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). Different processes are currently in place to decide and report on the condition of non-marine habitat and species features of SACs.

The main part of the assessment process is directly undertaken and stored here on Natural England’s Designated Sites View. The details for the most recent assessments of this site can be found here.

Management measures

If you are carrying out an environmental assessment, planning an operation or assessing an operation or proposal, it is important to consult with the following organisations where applicable. To find out if any management measures, byelaws or other restrictions apply to your activity see the management measure page or you can use the following links for more information.

The Marine Management Organisation license, regulate and plan marine activities in the seas around England and Wales so that they’re carried out in a sustainable way.
Environment Agency are responsible for regulating major industry and waste, water quality and resources, fisheries, inland river, estuary and harbour navigations, conservation and ecology.
Offshore Petroleum Regulator for the Environment and Decommissioning (OPRED) regulates oil and gas, CCS and gas storage activities in the marine environment.

Further information

For further information relating to this designated site you can refer to the following resources:
Site specific information: Other information:
For further information about this site contact: Natural England enquiries Telephone: 0300 060 3900. Email: